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Saturday, 3 December 2011

Software and Personal Computers


Networking and the Internet



 Main articles: Computer networking and Internet


Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet.


Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. The U.S. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems like Sabre.

In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. This effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that it produced was called the ARPANET. The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved.

In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. "Wireless" networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.

A computer does not need to be electronic, nor even have a processor, nor RAM, nor even a hard disk. While popular usage of the word "computer" is synonymous with a personal computer, the definition of a computer is literally "A device that computes, especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information." Any device which processes information qualifies as a computer, especially if the processing is purposeful.

Required technology

 Main article: Unconventional computing

Computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. For example, a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer); this is an unintuitive and pedagogical example that a computer can be made out of almost anything. More realistically, modern computers are made out of transistors made of photo lithographed semiconductors.

Historically, computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors.

There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology, such as optical computing, DNA computers, neural computers, and quantum computers. Some of these can easily tackle problems that modern computers cannot (such as how quantum computers can break some modern encryption algorithms by quantum factoring).

Computer architecture paradigms

There are many types of computer architectures:

•           Quantum computer vs Chemical computer
•           Scalar processor vs Vector processor
•           Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) computers
•           Register machine vs Stack machine
•           Harvard architecture vs von Neumann architecture
•           Cellular architecture
•          
The quantum computer architecture holds the most promise to revolutionize computing.

Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms.

The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore any type of computer (netbook, supercomputer, cellular automaton, etc.) is able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.

Limited-function computers

Conversely, a computer which is limited in function (one that is not "Turing-complete") cannot simulate arbitrary things. For example, simple four-function calculators cannot simulate a real computer without human intervention. As a more complicated example, without the ability to program a gaming console, it can never accomplish what a programmable calculator from the 1990s could (given enough time); the system as a whole is not Turing-complete, even though it contains a Turing-complete component (the microprocessor). Living organisms (the body, not the brain) are also limited-function computers designed to make copies of themselves; they cannot be reprogrammed without genetic engineering.

Virtual computers

A "computer" is commonly considered to be a physical device. However, one can create a computer program which describes how to run a different computer, i.e. "simulating a computer in a computer". Not only is this a constructive proof of the Church-Turing thesis, but is also extremely common in all modern computers. For example, some programming languages use something called an interpreter, which is a simulated computer built using software that runs on a real, physical computer; this allows programmers to write code (computer input) in a different language than the one understood by the base computer (the alternative is to use a compiler). Additionally, virtual machines are simulated computers which virtually replicate a physical computer in software, and are very commonly used by IT. Virtual machines are also a common technique used to create emulators, such game console emulators.

Artificial intelligence

A computer will solve problems in exactly the way they are programmed to, without regard to efficiency nor alternative solutions nor possible shortcuts nor possible errors in the code. Computer programs which learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Hardware

The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. Circuits, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and mice are all hardware.

History of computing hardware
First Generation (Mechanical/Electromechanical)
Calculators
Antikythera mechanism, Difference engine, Norden bombsight

Programmable Devices
Jacquard loom, Analytical engine, Harvard Mark I, Z3

Second Generation (Vacuum Tubes)
Calculators
Atanasoff–Berry Computer, IBM 604, UNIVAC 60, UNIVAC 120

Programmable Devices
Colossus, ENIAC, Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Mercury, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 650, Z22

Third Generation (Discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI Integrated circuits)
Mainframes
IBM 7090, IBM 7080, IBM System/360, BUNCH

Minicomputer
PDP-8, PDP-11, IBM System/32, IBM System/36

Fourth Generation (VLSI integrated circuits)
Minicomputer
VAX, IBM System i

4-bit microcomputer
Intel 4004, Intel 4040

8-bit microcomputer
Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800, Motorola 6809, MOS Technology 6502, Zilog Z80

16-bit microcomputer
Intel 8088, Zilog Z8000, WDC 65816/65802

32-bit microcomputer
Intel 80386, Pentium, Motorola 68000, ARM architecture

64-bit microcomputer
Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x86-64

Embedded computer
Intel 8048, Intel 8051

Personal computer
Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Personal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computer, Tablet PC, Wearable computer

Theoretical/experimental
Quantum computer, Chemical computer, DNA computing, Optical computer, Spintronics based computer




Other Hardware Topics
Peripheral device (Input/output)
Input
Mouse, Keyboard, Joystick, Image scanner, Webcam, Graphics tablet, Microphone

Output
Monitor, Printer, Loudspeaker

Both
Floppy disk drive, Hard disk drive, Optical disc drive, Teleprinter

Computer busses
Short range
RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB

Long range (Computer networking)
Ethernet, ATM, FDDI

 Software

Main article: Computer software

Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible), it is sometimes called "firmware" to indicate that it falls into an uncertain area somewhere between hardware and software.

Computer software
Operating system
Unix and
BSD

UNIX System V, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (SunOS), IRIX, List of BSD operating systems


GNU/Linux

List of Linux distributions, Comparison of Linux distributions


Microsoft Windows

Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7


DOS

86-DOS (QDOS), PC-DOS, MS-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS


Mac OS

Mac OS classic, Mac OS X


Embedded and real-time

List of embedded operating systems


Experimental

Amoeba, Oberon/Bluebottle, Plan 9 from Bell Labs


Library
Multimedia

DirectX, OpenGL, OpenAL


Programming library

C standard library, Standard Template Library


Data
Protocol

TCP/IP, Kermit, FTP, HTTP, SMTP


File format

HTML, XML, JPEG, MPEG, PNG






User interface
Graphical user
 interface (WIMP)

Microsoft Windows, GNOME, KDE, QNX Photon, CDE, GEM, Aqua


Text-based user
 interface
Command-line interface, Text user interface


Application
Office suite


Word processing, Desktop publishing, Presentation program, Database management system, Scheduling & Time management, Spreadsheet, Accounting software


Internet Access
Browser, E-mail client, Web server, Mail transfer agent, Instant messaging

Design and manufacturing
Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Plant management, Robotic manufacturing, Supply chain management

Graphics
Raster graphics editor, Vector graphics editor, 3D modeler, Animation editor, 3D computer graphics, Video editing, Image processing

Audio
Digital audio editor, Audio playback, Mixing, Audio synthesis, Computer music

Software engineering
Compiler, Assembler, Interpreter, Debugger, Text editor, Integrated development environment, Software performance analysis, Revision control, Software configuration management

Educational
Edutainment, Educational game, Serious game, Flight simulator

Games
Strategy, Arcade, Puzzle, Simulation, First-person shooter, Platform, Massively multiplayer, Interactive fiction

Misc
Artificial intelligence, Antivirus software, Malware scanner, Installer/Package management systems, File manager

 Programming languages

Main article: Programming language

Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. There are thousands of different programming languages some intended to be general purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.

Personal computer

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This article is about personal computers in general. For computers generally referred to as "PCs", see IBM PC compatible. For hardware components dealing with personal computers, see Personal computer hardware.

An illustration of a modern personal desktop computer

A personal computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. In contrast, the batch processing or time-sharing models allowed large expensive mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time. Large data processing systems require a full-time staff to operate efficiently.

Software applications for personal computers include, but are not limited to, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, Web browsers and e-mail clients, digital media playback, games, and myriad personal productivity and special-purpose software applications. Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. Personal computers may be connected to a local area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection. A personal computer may be a desktop computer or a laptop, tablet PC, or a handheld PC.

While early PC owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, today's users have access to a wide range of commercial software and free software, which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Since the early 1990s, Microsoft and Intel have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with the Wintel platform. Alternatives to Windows include Apple's Mac OS X and the open-source Linux OSes. AMD is the major alternative to Intel. Applications and games for PCs are typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store.

In July and August 2011, marketing businesses and journalists began to talk about the 'Post-PC Era', in which the desktop form factor was being replaced with more portable computing such as netbooks, Tablet PCs, and smartphones.


History
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.  Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2008)

Main article: History of personal computers

In what was later to be called The Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century - e-mail, hypertext, word processing, video conferencing, and the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time.

By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person.

In the 1970s Hewlett Packard introduced fully BASIC programmable computers that fit entirely on top of a desk, including a keyboard, a small one-line display and printer. The Xerox Alto, developed in 1973 at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), had a graphical operating system (GUI) that later served as inspiration for Apple Computer's Macintosh, and Microsoft's Windows operating system. The Wang 2200 of 1973 had a full-size cathode ray tube (CRT) and cassette tape storage. The IBM 5100 in 1975 had a small CRT display and could be programmed in BASIC and APL. These were generally expensive specialized computers sold for business or scientific uses. The introduction of the microprocessor, a single chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after 1975.

Early personal computers   generally called microcomputers were sold often in kit form and in limited volumes, and were of interest mostly to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, and output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, and printers. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008. It was built starting in 1972 and about 90,000 units were sold. In 1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak sold the Apple I computer circuit board, which was fully prepared and contained about 30 chips. The first successfully mass marketed personal computer was the Commodore PET introduced in January 1977. It was soon followed by the Apple II (usually referred to as the "Apple ][") in June 1977, and the TRS-80 from Radio Shack in November 1977. Mass-market ready-assembled computers allowed a wider range of people to use computers, focusing more on software applications and less on development of the processor hardware.

Through the late 1970s and into the 1980s, computers were further developed for household use, with software for personal productivity, programming and games. One such machine, the Commodore 64, totaled 17 million units sold, making it the best-selling single personal computer model of all time.  Somewhat larger and more expensive systems (although still low-cost compared with minicomputers and mainframes) were aimed at office and small business use. Workstations are characterized by high-performance processors and graphics displays, with large local disk storage, networking capability, and running under a multitasking operating system.



IBM 5150 as of 1981

Eventually, due to the influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market, personal computers and home computers lost any technical distinction. Business computers acquired color graphics capability and sound, and home computers and game systems users used the same processors and operating systems as office workers. Mass-market computers had graphics capabilities and memory comparable to dedicated workstations of a few years before. Even local area networking, originally a way to allow business computers to share expensive mass storage and peripherals, became a standard feature of personal computers used at home.

In 1982 "The Computer" was named Machine of the Year by Time Magazine.

Market and sales
Marketing and Sales Graph

Personal computers worldwide in million distinguished by developed and developing world

In 2001, 125 million personal computers were shipped in comparison to 48 thousand in 1977. More than 500 million personal computers were in use in 2002 and one billion personal computers had been sold worldwide from the mid-1970s up to this time. Of the latter figure, 75 percent were professional or work related, while the rest were sold for personal or home use. About 81.5 percent of personal computers shipped had been desktop computers, 16.4 percent laptops and 2.1 percent servers. The United States had received 38.8 percent (394 million) of the computers shipped,  Europe 25 percent and 11.7 percent had gone to the Asia-Pacific region, the fastest-growing market as of 2002. The second billion was expected to be sold by 2008.  Almost half of all the households in Western Europe had a personal computer and a computer could be found in 40 percent of homes in United Kingdom, compared with only 13 percent in 1985.

The global personal computer shipments were 350.9 million units in 2010, 308.3 million units in 2009 and 302.2 million units in 2008. The shipments were 264 million units in the year 2007, according to iSuppli, up 11.2 percent from 239 million in 2006. In 2004, the global shipments were 183 million units, an 11.6 percent increase over 2003. In 2003, 152.6 million computers were shipped, at an estimated value of $175 billion. In 2002, 136.7 million PCs were shipped, at an estimated value of $175 billion. In 2000, 140.2 million personal computers were shipped, at an estimated value of $226 billion. Worldwide shipments of personal computers surpassed the 100-million mark in 1999, growing to 113.5 million units from 93.3 million units in 1998. In 1999, Asia had 14.1 million units shipped.

For 2011, global PC shipments are expected to reach 364 million units, a 3.8% growth comparing to 2010

As of June 2008, the number of personal computers in use worldwide hit one billion, while another billion is expected to be reached by 2014. Mature markets like the United States, Western Europe and Japan accounted for 58 percent of the worldwide installed PCs. The emerging markets were expected to double their installed PCs by 2012 and to take 70 percent of the second billion PCs. About 180 million computers (16 percent of the existing installed base) were expected to be replaced and 35 million to be dumped into landfill in 2008. The whole installed base grew 12 percent annually.

Based on IDC data for Q2 2011, for the first time China surpassed US in PC shipments by 18.5 million and 17.7 million respectively. It is reflects the rising of emerging markets as well as the relative stagnation of mature regions.

In the developed world, there has been a vendor tradition to keep adding functions to maintain high prices of personal computers. However, since the introduction of the One Laptop per Child foundation and its low-cost XO-1 laptop, the computing industry started to pursue the price too. Although introduced only one year earlier, there were 14 million netbooks sold in 2008. Besides the regular computer manufacturers, companies making especially rugged versions of computers have sprung up, offering alternatives for people operating their machines in extreme weather or environments.
Deloitte consulting firm predicts that in 2011 smartphones and tablet computers as computing devices will surpass the PCs sales. Pc era is far from over as PCs will remain the main computing platform.

Average selling price

Selling prices of personal computers, unlike other consumer commodities, steadily declined due to lower costs of production and manufacture. Capabilities of the computers also increased. In 1975, an Altair kit sold for only around US $400, but required customers to solder components into circuit boards; peripherals required to interact with the system in alphanumeric form instead of blinking lights would add another $2000, and the resultant system was only of use to hobbyists.

At their introduction in 1981, the US $1,795 price of the Osborne 1 and its competitor Kaypro was considered an attractive price point; these systems had text-only displays and only floppy disks for storage. By 1982, Michael Dell observed that a personal computer system selling at retail for about $3,000 US was made of components that cost the dealer about $600; typical gross margin on a computer unit was around $1,000. The total value of personal computer purchases in the US in 1983 was about $4 billion, comparable to total sales of pet food. By late 1998, the average selling price of personal computer systems in the United States had dropped below $1000.

For Microsoft Windows systems, the average selling price (ASP) showed a decline in 2008/2009, possibly due to low-cost netbooks, drawing $569 for desktop computers and $689 for laptops at U.S. retail in August 2008. In 2009, ASP had further fallen to $533 for desktops and to $602 for notebooks by January and to $540 and $560 in February. According to research firm NPD, the average selling price of all Windows portable PCs has fallen from $659 in October 2008 to $519 in October 2009.




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