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Saturday, 10 December 2011

How do I make money online


“How do I make money online?”

First Step



Well, to start, go read some articles on the Internet with that phrase in the title. After you recover from the initial bout of soul crushing depression come back here and let me introduce you to the staple of most web publishing based monetization — advertising. The most important thing you can learn about advertising online is that it’s a much richer landscape than Adsense would have you believe. To drive that point home I’ve collected 21 advertising providers covering the gamut of publishing formats.

1. Kontera – In-Text Advertising

Kontera is a good network if you are just starting out as a publisher or if your content is text heavy. You can get into the network through Scribefire or sign up directly, and the code is simple to install. The downside is you will have a ton of double underlined ads at random locations in your text. For some readers it can be a nuisance. This is a great network while you are still at the “I want to pay the server bill” stage.

2. Text Link Ads – Text Link / In-Text Advertising

How to Get Text Links


This network deals in paid text links which typically find their home in your sidebar. There is a lot of upside to Text Link Ads. You don’t need gaudy banners, they pay well and they are generally transparent to your audience. Unfortunately, they are on rather shaky ground Google and using TLA can get you penalized in the engines. For most small publishers this won’t be a significant issue, but if strong positioning in the SERP is absolutely critical for your business, this should be a consideration.

3. Commission Junction – CPA / Affiliate Marketpace

Commission Junction deals in cost per action and affiliate programs. If you run a site that reviews products or otherwise encourages buying behavior, this network can be extremely lucrative. Typically the payouts per action are substantially higher than cost per impression or cost per click networks, unfortunately if your site does not convert viewers into buyers you won’t see a dime. There are tons of affiliate networks out there, commission junction is one of the largest and most well known.






4. Shopping Ads – CPA / Affiliate Marketplace

Think commission junction but with deals through eBay, Amazon and other retail channels. Again, before using this as your primary monetization channel consider your audience. If I am using your site as a pitstop to a purchase, affiliates are a great way to get cut — if, however, your site gives me no incentive to buy anything, don’t expect to see a huge payout from Shopping Ads.

5. Adsense – Contextual Ad Network

The most recognizable ad network on the web, Google’s contextual ads make up a huge percentage of online advertising. The reason is that they are one size fits all, no matter what your site Google probably has an ad for you. Not only that, their fill rate is superb and they are an easy network to get into. What’s the downside? It’s easy to outgrow them, you will eventually find that Google’s payout for many verticals isn’t as good as you could be making elsewhere. At that point, it might be time to start looking at other providers and using Google as a remnant to fill your unsold inventory.

6. Technorati Media – Rep Agency

This is one of the ad providers we use here at HTSAA. Technorati Media has a fantastic sales and support staff and CPMs I have only seen rivaled by Gorilla Nation and Federated Media. They payout at 50% and they currently sell skyscrapers, leaderboards and rectangles. The downside is that they are difficult to get into (they currently work with about 100 publishers) and because they are new, they have a limited number of campaigns available. If you have a few other providers for your unsold inventory, I can’t say better things about Technorati.

7. Tribal Fusion – Rep Agency

Like Technorati Media, Tribal Fusion is a rep agency so you will have a sales staff behind you trying to sell advertising into your vertical. The result is very competitive CPMs and a fill rate that comes from being behind an established network. Unfortunately, getting into Tribal Fusion isn’t easy. Bad economic times are also causing them to decrease the number of publishers they let in, which will be especially difficult for smaller publishers who might have been just large enough to get in under other conditions.

8. Federated Media – Rep Agency

While I have never worked with Federated Media personally, I will say that they are a premiere agency for top-tier bloggers. They have some of the highest CPMs in the industry and they have a sales staff that is constantly working to drive new, innovative campaigns to their publishers. You will need substantial traction to have a chance to be accepted by Federated Media, but once you get a few hundred thousand monthly impressions it’s worth sending in an application.

9. Gorilla Nation – Rep Agency

Gorilla Nation is another network I haven’t worked with directly, but it has the reputation as one of the best ad providers for medium to large publishers. Like all rep agencies your biggest problem will be fill, they can’t provide hard numbers (since they are different depending on the publisher) but expect to see a 30% fill rate.

10. Forbes Business Network – Rep Agency

Forbes Business Network is specialty ad network for business and finance blogs run by the salespeople at Forbes. I have had a love hate relationship with FBN. They are a great provider of premium advertising, seeing $5 CPMs in some cases. Unfortunately, depending on the month the number of campaigns and their fill rate can be extremely low (under 10%). Forbes is a great addition to the chain, but it is unlikely to be your only ad provider.

11. Performacing Ads – 125 x 125 Marketplace

Performancing is in the business of selling 125 x 125 ads now. For anyone who has spent time in content production, you would know that the 125 x 125 is a hugely popular format for bloggers. Performancing has been a mixed bag, their interface is great and implementation of the code is easy but you still spend a great deal of time waiting for your ad space to be sold. It’s good but not a perfect solution.

12. Voxant – In-Video

Voxant is a provider of video content syndicated from dozens of major news companies including BBC, AP and Reuters. They also have a revenue sharing program that pays publishers for showing their videos. This is a win-win. Not only do you get access to high quality video content, but you also get paid whenever anyone watches it. The only downside is the backend. It’s difficult to track anything and hard to tell whether every view is a paid impression (they use several ad providers and sometimes none at all). All in all it is a great service that has only been getting better over time.

13. Videoegg – Social Network / Widget Advertising

Videoegg has a large inventory of ads for wdigets, social networks and other rich media platforms. It’s a great network for anyone with a traditionally difficult to monetize platform.

14. Social Spark – Advertorial

Social Spark allows advertisers to buy bloggers time and space and get them to write about products and services — that’s right, it’s an advertorial exchange. This is another buyer beware scenario, not because Google will frown on you (the IZEA team worked hard to unruffle those feathers) but because the advertorial model is still young in Blogging circles and there is a lot of backlash associated with using it. Transparency seems to be the biggest takeaway when using a service like this, Social Spark forces it but even without the nudge in the right direction be sure to realize you are playing with your reader’s trust. That being said, I think everyone would do well to realize that advertorial has been in media since the invention of the newstand, it might be time for us to get over ourselves just a little.

15. Review Me – Advertorial

ReviewMe is another Advertorial marketplace with a few less checks and balances as Social Spark. The same rules apply.

16. interClick – Ad Network

While I would have liked a higher fill rate, what I like about interClick is your ability to see just about everything about the campaigns that you are running. They offer skyscrapers, leaderboards and rectangles as well as popup ads (if you’re into that sort of thing). This network should definitely be used

17. Casale Media – Ad Network

Casale Media is a notoriously difficult network to get into, but everything I’ve heard suggest that they run into fewer dilution problems than similar networks.

18. Pheedo – RSS Advertising

When you absolutely, positively must have advertising in every portion of your digital life Pheedo is here to help you place ads in your RSS feeds. Everyone loves getting feed subscribers but they hate the fact that their most valuable readers almost never see their shiny new brand advertisement. I don’t put ads in my feed but I’ve heard that Pheedo is a good (if not particularly lucrative) solution.

19. Magpie – Twitter Advertising

See Ophelia’s excellent post on the matter, coming tomorrow.

20. Pubmatic – Ad Optimizer

Pubmatic isn’t really an ad provider, but it will help you make money. Pubmatic acts as an advertising optimizer, you put in pre-existing tags and it serves the ones that will provide you with the highest CPMs. Typically, they are seeing lifts in revenue from between 10-30%. In practice this is heavily dependent on the networks you are running and how you are choosing to run them.

21. Rubicon Project – Ad Optimizer

Finally let’s look at the Rubicon Project, another ad optimizer that also acts as an ad provider. Using deals with many major networks, Rubicon will not only serve you ads from your stable of providers but will also pick other providers which might provide you with higher CPMs. From what I’ve seen Rubicon is a great tool, but it’s not for everyone. Reporting can be slow and inaccurate, and depending on the number of networks you are trying to setup it can be difficult to get started. Rubicon also needs several hundred impressions to properly optimize your inventory.


Friday, 9 December 2011

Introduction to Computers Technologies

History of Computers Sciences

The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century onwards, the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out computations.Read More->>

How do I make money online?

Well, to start, go read some articles on the Internet with that phrase in the title. After you recover from the initial bout of soul crushing depression come back here and let me introduce you to the staple of most web publishing based monetization — advertising. The most important thing you can learn about advertising online is that it’s a much richer landscape than Adsense would have you believe. To drive that point home I’ve collected advertising providers covering the gamut of publishing formats See Here-->>

What are the differences between hardware and software?

Computer hardware is any physical device, something that you are able to touch and software is a collection of instructions and code installed into the computer and cannot be touched. For example, the computer monitor you are using to read this text on and the mouse you are using to navigate this web page is computer hardware. The Internet browser that allowed you to visit this page and the operating system that the browser is running on is software More Details Here-->>

Computer types

Since the invention of computers from first generation and fourth generation computers, they have been classified according to their types and how they operate that is input, process and output information. Below you will get a brief discussion on various types of Computers we have

Computer types can be divided into 3 categories according to electronic nature. Types of computers are classified according to how a particular Computer functions Full Study-->>.


What is Google Adsense?

Google AdSense is a free, simple way for website publishers of all sizes to earn money by displaying targeted Google ads on their websites. AdSense also lets you provide Google search to your site users, while earning money by displaying Google ads on the search results pages How does it Works--??

Computers Online Market

Computer Market On Line is the best and biggest on line computer store, We currently have a lot of products in different categories with real time price/warehouse stock and vendors stocks, Features Order/Shipment Tracking and on line quotations. We offer many flexible methods for Payment and delivery. For details Visit Here=>>

Can I Promote My Business Online?

Most businesses can benefit from free online promotion. We round up a handful of the best free resources for promoting your business on the web.

While we've tried to include sites with worldwide reach, we recommend doing a local search for services in your locality as well as industry-specific listings sites and directories One of these is Free Online Marketing=>.


21 Great Advertising Networks For Publishers

Well, to start, go read some articles on the Internet with that phrase in the title. After you recover from the initial bout of soul crushing depression come back here and let me introduce you to the staple of most web publishing based monetization — advertising. The most important thing you can learn about advertising online is that it’s a much richer landscape than Adsense would have you believe. To drive that point home I’ve collected 21 advertising providers covering the gamut of publishing formats For details Go Here=>



Tuesday, 6 December 2011

Make Money at Home

Online Revenue Earning Programs:

Try Amazon to solve your revenue issues


Make Money with Amazon Astore Programe

Nexoncomputers.blogspot.com is a website/blog that provide enough information about computers and computers technologies. This blog eloborates about current development in the field of Information Technologies as well as about history of computing. This blogs also describes about early history of computer and day to day development. It is a good platform even where you can find your best deals as well as you can promote your business through this blog with Business Promotion section and tools held therein. just join and start making money. More Details>>>


Adbull Blog Marketing Programm

This is a brand page for the Adbull trademark by Lexos Media, Inc. in New York, NY, 10003. Write a review about a product or service associated with this Adbull trademark. Or, contact the owner Lexos Media, Inc. of the Adbull trademark by filing a request to communicate with The Legal Correspondent for licensing, use, and/or questions related to the Adbull trademark Please Click<<--------.


CBeckAds Groups




When will I receive my earnings? Payments are automatically made on the 1st of every month with Paypal or Alertpay. We do not charge any fees for payment, however Paypal and Alertpay standard fees apply. The minimum payment balance is $15, if your account does not reach this balance, your balance is carried forward to the next month Learn How to Join?.  You can also monitize your website by Cbeckads Group click here for more information  CBeckAds - Monetize Your Website.


Konetra

Kontera is an In-text advertising solutions technology company.Their process of advertising helps to earn money whenever a visitors clicks on the keyword in the web site. There has been a lot of controversy about Kontera. Some people say that sometime Kontera provides irrelevant Links to the visitors that can make some visitors angry. But we have found that Kontera provides more than 15000 links with better relevancy.


Dynamic Oxygen



Recently I joined Dynamic Oxygen as both an Advertiser  and also a Publisher. So I wanted to give a quick review based on my results. They are fairy new to the affiliate marketing arena but have a great platform which has helped me to make money from both Advertiser and Publisher sides. Since they are new; they are not yet saturated with offers which means if you know how to build killer textual ads which lead to good landing pages with clean calls to action – you WIN and make money. Or as a publisher; you have a decent website or network of websites you can take advantage of monitizing your traffic (all of it) even international traffic which is rare.More Information Available Here

adBrite's


How does adBrite's Works






adBrite's Exchange provides you, our publisher, a yield management solution. Our advertisers range from small local companies to world-wide advertising agencies, to demand side platforms, real time bidders, ad networks, and everyone in between. adBrite makes it easy for you to have access to thousands of advertisers with minimal effort. Just tell us how much you need to sell your inventory for. We put your inventory up for auction in our exchange. If one of our client partners bids on your available inventory and it clears your floor, they buy it. Once we get paid, you get paid. Pretty simple. Also pretty profitable.

ClickSor



Clicksor is a new program from Yesup, the company behind PayPopUp. The program is based on CPC text advertisements superficially similar to Google AdSense, but... well, worse. The basic premise is that you sign up, add your site(s) - you can have more than one, and tracking is separate - define your keywords and then place your ad codes. The step about defining keywords is why this program is significantly worse than Google AdSense. Where AdSense dynamically determines the appropriate keywords based on the contents of your pages (resulting in automatic per-page targeting), Clicksor's scheme has you put in every possible relevant keyword you can think of and hope for the best. (They emailed us a couple of times suggesting that we don't have enough keywords defined - they recommend at least 100 per site.)

Exit Junction

Exit Junction is an affiliate program that will help you quickly make money online. Here is how it works. When a visitor reach your site from search engine, browse through your site and realise that they are not able to get the information required, will likely hit the back button to exit from your site. When they hit the back button, instead of landing at the search engine page, they will end at ExitJunction search page instead.Know how it works?



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Sunday, 4 December 2011

Types of Computers





Stationary Workstation

Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s
Main article: Workstation

A workstation is a high-end personal computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. Workstations are used for tasks such as computer-aided design, drafting and modeling, computation-intensive scientific and engineering calculations, image processing, architectural modeling, and computer graphics for animation and motion picture visual effects.



Desktop computer

Main article: Desktop computer


Dell OptiPlex desktop computer

Prior to the wide spread of PCs a computer that could fit on a desk was considered remarkably small. Today the phrase usually indicates a particular style of computer case. Desktop computers come in a variety of styles ranging from large vertical tower cases to small form factor models that can be tucked behind an LCD monitor. In this sense, the term 'desktop' refers specifically to a horizontally oriented case, usually intended to have the display screen placed on top to save space on the desk top. Most modern desktop computers have separate screens and keyboards.


Gaming Computer

Main article: Gaming computer

Games have been on computers since 1962 when Spacewar! was released. Today Personal Computer Gaming or PC gaming is a very popular pastime. Gaming computers tend to also be about the looks of the case rather than just the specifications of the hardware. A gaming computer needs to be much more powerful than a PC that someone is using to do office work and to surf the internet. A Gaming Computer has to have a good graphics card so that it can process all the 3D models and shapes that are on the screen. In addition the Central processing unit or CPU has to do more work to calculate game mechanics, figure out gravity, and assist with the graphics and process the sound. Most serious gamers prefer to build their own computer or rig. This is because they can get exactly what they want and the price is a lot cheaper. When building a ‘high end’ computer the price is generally right around $600. Many people say this is super expensive but it's not that much more than an Xbox 360 or a PlayStation 3 when they first came out. In addition, a computer can be used for much more than just gaming, and a $600 computer will last at least 5 years. The choice of parts to build a computer are vast as many companies build different parts of the system.

Single unit

Further information: All-in-one computer

Single unit PCs (also known as all-in-one PCs) are a subtype of desktop computers, which combine the monitor and case of the computer within a single unit. The monitor often utilizes a touchscreen as an optional method of user input, however detached keyboards and mice are normally still included. The inner components of the PC are often located directly behind the monitor, and many are built similarly to laptops.

Nettop

Main article: Nettop


Asus I7 High-Res Notebook

A subtype of desktops, called nettops, was introduced by Intel in February 2008 to describe low-cost, lean-function, desktop computers. A similar subtype of laptops (or notebooks) are the netbooks (see below). The product line features the new Intel Atom processor which specially enables them to consume less power and to be built into small enclosures.

Home theater PC

Main article: Home theater PC


Antec Fusion V2 home theater PC with keyboard on top.

A home theater PC (HTPC) is a convergence device that combines the functions of a personal computer and a digital video recorder. It is connected to a television or a television-sized computer display and is often used as a digital photo, music, video player, TV receiver and digital video recorder. Home theater PCs are also referred to as media center systems or media servers. The general goal in a HTPC is usually to combine many or all components of a home theater setup into one box. They can be purchased pre-configured with the required hardware and software needed to add television programming to the PC, or can be cobbled together out of discrete components as is commonly done with MythTV, Windows Media Center, GB-PVR, SageTV, Famulent or LinuxMCE.

Mobile
Laptop
Main article: Laptop



A modern laptop computer

A laptop computer or simply laptop, also called a notebook computer, is a small personal computer designed for portability. Usually all of the interface hardware needed to operate the laptop, such as USB ports (previously parallel and serial ports), graphics card, sound channel, etc, are built in to a single unit. Laptops contain high capacity batteries that can power the device for extensive periods of time, enhancing portability. Once the battery charge is depleted, it will have to be recharged through a power outlet. In the interest of saving power, weight and space, they usually share RAM with the video channel, slowing their performance compared to an equivalent desktop machine.

One main drawback of the laptop is sometimes, due to the size and configuration of components, relatively little can be done to upgrade the overall computer from its original design. Internal upgrades are either not manufacturer recommended, can damage the laptop if done with poor care or knowledge, or in some cases impossible, making the desktop PC more modular. Some internal upgrades, such as memory and hard disks upgrades are often easy, a display or keyboard upgrade is usually impossible. The laptop has the same access as the desktop to the wide variety of devices, such as external displays, mice, cameras, storage devices and keyboards, which may be attached externally through USB ports and other less common ports such as external video.

A subtype of notebooks, called subnotebooks, are computers with most of the features of a standard laptop computer but smaller. They are larger than hand-held computers, and usually run full versions of desktop/laptop operating systems. Ultra-Mobile PCs (UMPC) are usually considered subnotebooks, or more specifically, subnotebook Tablet PCs (see below). Netbooks are sometimes considered in this category, though they are sometimes separated in a category of their own (see below).

Desktop replacement

Main article: Desktop replacement computer



An Acer 18'4 inch screen Desktop Replacement Laptop

A desktop replacement computer (DTR) is a personal computer that provides the full capabilities of a desktop computer while remaining mobile. They are often larger, bulkier laptops. Because of their increased size, this class of computer usually includes more powerful components and a larger display than generally used in smaller portable computers and can have a relatively limited battery capacity (or none at all). Some use a limited range of desktop components to provide better performance at the expense of battery life. These are sometimes called desknotes, a portmanteau of the words "desktop" and "notebook," though the term is also applied to desktop replacement computers in general.

Netbook

Main article: Netbook



An HP netbook

Netbooks (also called mini notebooks or subnotebooks) are a rapidly evolvingcategory of small, light and inexpensive laptop computers suited for general computing and accessing web-based applications; they are often marketed as "companion devices," that is, to augment a user's other computer access. Walt Mossberg called them a "relatively new category of small, light, minimalist and cheap laptops." By August 2009, CNET called netbooks "nothing more than smaller, cheaper notebooks."

Initially, their primary defining characteristic was the lack of an optical disc drive, requiring it to be a separate and external device. This has become less important as flash memory devices have gradually increased in capacity, replacing the writable optical disc (e.g. CD-RW, DVD-RW) as a transportable storage medium.

At their inception in late 2007 as smaller notebooks optimized for low weight and low cost netbooks omitted key features (e.g., the optical drive), featured smaller screens and keyboards, and offered reduced specification and computing power. Over the course of their evolution, netbooks have ranged in size from below 5 in to over 13 in, and from ~1 kg (2-3 pounds). Often significantly less expensive than other laptops, by mid-2009, netbooks had been offered to users "free of charge", with an extended service contract purchase of a cellular data plan.

In the short period since their appearance, netbooks have grown in size and features, now converging with new smaller, lighter notebooks. By mid 2009, CNET noted "the specs are so similar that the average shopper would likely be confused as to why one is better than the other," noting "the only conclusion is that there really is no distinction between the devices."

Tablet PC

Main article: Tablet personal computer


HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard.

A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer. Its touchscreen or graphics tablet/screen hybrid technology allows the user to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse. The form factor offers a more mobile way to interact with a computer. Tablet PCs are often used where normal notebooks are impractical or unwieldy, or do not provide the needed functionality.

Ultra-mobile PC

Main article: Ultra-mobile PC


Samsung Q1 Ultra-Mobile PC.

The ultra-mobile PC (UMPC) is a specification for a small form factor of tablet PCs. It was developed as a joint development exercise by Microsoft, Intel, and Samsung, among others. Current UMPCs typically feature the Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Linux operating system and low-voltage Intel Atom or VIA C7-M processors.

Pocket PC

Main article: Pocket PC


An O2 pocket PC

A pocket PC is a hardware specification for a handheld-sized computer (personal digital assistant) that runs the Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. It may have the capability to run an alternative operating system like NetBSD or Linux. It has many of the capabilities of modern desktop PCs.

Currently there are tens of thousands of applications for handhelds adhering to the Microsoft Pocket PC specification, many of which are freeware. Some of these devices also include mobile phone features and thus actually represent a smartphone. Microsoft compliant Pocket PCs can also be used with many other add-ons like GPS receivers, barcode readers, RFID readers, and cameras. In 2007, with the release of Windows Mobile 6, Microsoft dropped the name Pocket PC in favor of a new naming scheme. Devices without an integrated phone are called Windows Mobile Classic instead of Pocket PC. Devices with an integrated phone and a touch screen are called Windows Mobile Professional.


Saturday, 3 December 2011

Software and Personal Computers


Networking and the Internet



 Main articles: Computer networking and Internet


Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet.


Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. The U.S. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems like Sabre.

In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. This effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that it produced was called the ARPANET. The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved.

In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. "Wireless" networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.

A computer does not need to be electronic, nor even have a processor, nor RAM, nor even a hard disk. While popular usage of the word "computer" is synonymous with a personal computer, the definition of a computer is literally "A device that computes, especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information." Any device which processes information qualifies as a computer, especially if the processing is purposeful.

Required technology

 Main article: Unconventional computing

Computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. For example, a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer); this is an unintuitive and pedagogical example that a computer can be made out of almost anything. More realistically, modern computers are made out of transistors made of photo lithographed semiconductors.

Historically, computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors.

There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology, such as optical computing, DNA computers, neural computers, and quantum computers. Some of these can easily tackle problems that modern computers cannot (such as how quantum computers can break some modern encryption algorithms by quantum factoring).

Computer architecture paradigms

There are many types of computer architectures:

•           Quantum computer vs Chemical computer
•           Scalar processor vs Vector processor
•           Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) computers
•           Register machine vs Stack machine
•           Harvard architecture vs von Neumann architecture
•           Cellular architecture
•          
The quantum computer architecture holds the most promise to revolutionize computing.

Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms.

The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore any type of computer (netbook, supercomputer, cellular automaton, etc.) is able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.

Limited-function computers

Conversely, a computer which is limited in function (one that is not "Turing-complete") cannot simulate arbitrary things. For example, simple four-function calculators cannot simulate a real computer without human intervention. As a more complicated example, without the ability to program a gaming console, it can never accomplish what a programmable calculator from the 1990s could (given enough time); the system as a whole is not Turing-complete, even though it contains a Turing-complete component (the microprocessor). Living organisms (the body, not the brain) are also limited-function computers designed to make copies of themselves; they cannot be reprogrammed without genetic engineering.

Virtual computers

A "computer" is commonly considered to be a physical device. However, one can create a computer program which describes how to run a different computer, i.e. "simulating a computer in a computer". Not only is this a constructive proof of the Church-Turing thesis, but is also extremely common in all modern computers. For example, some programming languages use something called an interpreter, which is a simulated computer built using software that runs on a real, physical computer; this allows programmers to write code (computer input) in a different language than the one understood by the base computer (the alternative is to use a compiler). Additionally, virtual machines are simulated computers which virtually replicate a physical computer in software, and are very commonly used by IT. Virtual machines are also a common technique used to create emulators, such game console emulators.

Artificial intelligence

A computer will solve problems in exactly the way they are programmed to, without regard to efficiency nor alternative solutions nor possible shortcuts nor possible errors in the code. Computer programs which learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Hardware

The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. Circuits, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and mice are all hardware.

History of computing hardware
First Generation (Mechanical/Electromechanical)
Calculators
Antikythera mechanism, Difference engine, Norden bombsight

Programmable Devices
Jacquard loom, Analytical engine, Harvard Mark I, Z3

Second Generation (Vacuum Tubes)
Calculators
Atanasoff–Berry Computer, IBM 604, UNIVAC 60, UNIVAC 120

Programmable Devices
Colossus, ENIAC, Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Mercury, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 650, Z22

Third Generation (Discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI Integrated circuits)
Mainframes
IBM 7090, IBM 7080, IBM System/360, BUNCH

Minicomputer
PDP-8, PDP-11, IBM System/32, IBM System/36

Fourth Generation (VLSI integrated circuits)
Minicomputer
VAX, IBM System i

4-bit microcomputer
Intel 4004, Intel 4040

8-bit microcomputer
Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800, Motorola 6809, MOS Technology 6502, Zilog Z80

16-bit microcomputer
Intel 8088, Zilog Z8000, WDC 65816/65802

32-bit microcomputer
Intel 80386, Pentium, Motorola 68000, ARM architecture

64-bit microcomputer
Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x86-64

Embedded computer
Intel 8048, Intel 8051

Personal computer
Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Personal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computer, Tablet PC, Wearable computer

Theoretical/experimental
Quantum computer, Chemical computer, DNA computing, Optical computer, Spintronics based computer




Other Hardware Topics
Peripheral device (Input/output)
Input
Mouse, Keyboard, Joystick, Image scanner, Webcam, Graphics tablet, Microphone

Output
Monitor, Printer, Loudspeaker

Both
Floppy disk drive, Hard disk drive, Optical disc drive, Teleprinter

Computer busses
Short range
RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB

Long range (Computer networking)
Ethernet, ATM, FDDI

 Software

Main article: Computer software

Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible), it is sometimes called "firmware" to indicate that it falls into an uncertain area somewhere between hardware and software.

Computer software
Operating system
Unix and
BSD

UNIX System V, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (SunOS), IRIX, List of BSD operating systems


GNU/Linux

List of Linux distributions, Comparison of Linux distributions


Microsoft Windows

Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7


DOS

86-DOS (QDOS), PC-DOS, MS-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS


Mac OS

Mac OS classic, Mac OS X


Embedded and real-time

List of embedded operating systems


Experimental

Amoeba, Oberon/Bluebottle, Plan 9 from Bell Labs


Library
Multimedia

DirectX, OpenGL, OpenAL


Programming library

C standard library, Standard Template Library


Data
Protocol

TCP/IP, Kermit, FTP, HTTP, SMTP


File format

HTML, XML, JPEG, MPEG, PNG






User interface
Graphical user
 interface (WIMP)

Microsoft Windows, GNOME, KDE, QNX Photon, CDE, GEM, Aqua


Text-based user
 interface
Command-line interface, Text user interface


Application
Office suite


Word processing, Desktop publishing, Presentation program, Database management system, Scheduling & Time management, Spreadsheet, Accounting software


Internet Access
Browser, E-mail client, Web server, Mail transfer agent, Instant messaging

Design and manufacturing
Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Plant management, Robotic manufacturing, Supply chain management

Graphics
Raster graphics editor, Vector graphics editor, 3D modeler, Animation editor, 3D computer graphics, Video editing, Image processing

Audio
Digital audio editor, Audio playback, Mixing, Audio synthesis, Computer music

Software engineering
Compiler, Assembler, Interpreter, Debugger, Text editor, Integrated development environment, Software performance analysis, Revision control, Software configuration management

Educational
Edutainment, Educational game, Serious game, Flight simulator

Games
Strategy, Arcade, Puzzle, Simulation, First-person shooter, Platform, Massively multiplayer, Interactive fiction

Misc
Artificial intelligence, Antivirus software, Malware scanner, Installer/Package management systems, File manager

 Programming languages

Main article: Programming language

Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. There are thousands of different programming languages some intended to be general purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.

Personal computer

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This article is about personal computers in general. For computers generally referred to as "PCs", see IBM PC compatible. For hardware components dealing with personal computers, see Personal computer hardware.

An illustration of a modern personal desktop computer

A personal computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. In contrast, the batch processing or time-sharing models allowed large expensive mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time. Large data processing systems require a full-time staff to operate efficiently.

Software applications for personal computers include, but are not limited to, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, Web browsers and e-mail clients, digital media playback, games, and myriad personal productivity and special-purpose software applications. Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. Personal computers may be connected to a local area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection. A personal computer may be a desktop computer or a laptop, tablet PC, or a handheld PC.

While early PC owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, today's users have access to a wide range of commercial software and free software, which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Since the early 1990s, Microsoft and Intel have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with the Wintel platform. Alternatives to Windows include Apple's Mac OS X and the open-source Linux OSes. AMD is the major alternative to Intel. Applications and games for PCs are typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store.

In July and August 2011, marketing businesses and journalists began to talk about the 'Post-PC Era', in which the desktop form factor was being replaced with more portable computing such as netbooks, Tablet PCs, and smartphones.


History
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.  Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2008)

Main article: History of personal computers

In what was later to be called The Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 gave a preview of what would become the staples of daily working life in the 21st century - e-mail, hypertext, word processing, video conferencing, and the mouse. The demonstration required technical support staff and a mainframe time-sharing computer that were far too costly for individual business use at the time.

By the early 1970s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single person.

In the 1970s Hewlett Packard introduced fully BASIC programmable computers that fit entirely on top of a desk, including a keyboard, a small one-line display and printer. The Xerox Alto, developed in 1973 at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), had a graphical operating system (GUI) that later served as inspiration for Apple Computer's Macintosh, and Microsoft's Windows operating system. The Wang 2200 of 1973 had a full-size cathode ray tube (CRT) and cassette tape storage. The IBM 5100 in 1975 had a small CRT display and could be programmed in BASIC and APL. These were generally expensive specialized computers sold for business or scientific uses. The introduction of the microprocessor, a single chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after 1975.

Early personal computers   generally called microcomputers were sold often in kit form and in limited volumes, and were of interest mostly to hobbyists and technicians. Minimal programming was done with toggle switches to enter instructions, and output was provided by front panel lamps. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displays, disk drives, and printers. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel 8008. It was built starting in 1972 and about 90,000 units were sold. In 1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak sold the Apple I computer circuit board, which was fully prepared and contained about 30 chips. The first successfully mass marketed personal computer was the Commodore PET introduced in January 1977. It was soon followed by the Apple II (usually referred to as the "Apple ][") in June 1977, and the TRS-80 from Radio Shack in November 1977. Mass-market ready-assembled computers allowed a wider range of people to use computers, focusing more on software applications and less on development of the processor hardware.

Through the late 1970s and into the 1980s, computers were further developed for household use, with software for personal productivity, programming and games. One such machine, the Commodore 64, totaled 17 million units sold, making it the best-selling single personal computer model of all time.  Somewhat larger and more expensive systems (although still low-cost compared with minicomputers and mainframes) were aimed at office and small business use. Workstations are characterized by high-performance processors and graphics displays, with large local disk storage, networking capability, and running under a multitasking operating system.



IBM 5150 as of 1981

Eventually, due to the influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market, personal computers and home computers lost any technical distinction. Business computers acquired color graphics capability and sound, and home computers and game systems users used the same processors and operating systems as office workers. Mass-market computers had graphics capabilities and memory comparable to dedicated workstations of a few years before. Even local area networking, originally a way to allow business computers to share expensive mass storage and peripherals, became a standard feature of personal computers used at home.

In 1982 "The Computer" was named Machine of the Year by Time Magazine.

Market and sales
Marketing and Sales Graph

Personal computers worldwide in million distinguished by developed and developing world

In 2001, 125 million personal computers were shipped in comparison to 48 thousand in 1977. More than 500 million personal computers were in use in 2002 and one billion personal computers had been sold worldwide from the mid-1970s up to this time. Of the latter figure, 75 percent were professional or work related, while the rest were sold for personal or home use. About 81.5 percent of personal computers shipped had been desktop computers, 16.4 percent laptops and 2.1 percent servers. The United States had received 38.8 percent (394 million) of the computers shipped,  Europe 25 percent and 11.7 percent had gone to the Asia-Pacific region, the fastest-growing market as of 2002. The second billion was expected to be sold by 2008.  Almost half of all the households in Western Europe had a personal computer and a computer could be found in 40 percent of homes in United Kingdom, compared with only 13 percent in 1985.

The global personal computer shipments were 350.9 million units in 2010, 308.3 million units in 2009 and 302.2 million units in 2008. The shipments were 264 million units in the year 2007, according to iSuppli, up 11.2 percent from 239 million in 2006. In 2004, the global shipments were 183 million units, an 11.6 percent increase over 2003. In 2003, 152.6 million computers were shipped, at an estimated value of $175 billion. In 2002, 136.7 million PCs were shipped, at an estimated value of $175 billion. In 2000, 140.2 million personal computers were shipped, at an estimated value of $226 billion. Worldwide shipments of personal computers surpassed the 100-million mark in 1999, growing to 113.5 million units from 93.3 million units in 1998. In 1999, Asia had 14.1 million units shipped.

For 2011, global PC shipments are expected to reach 364 million units, a 3.8% growth comparing to 2010

As of June 2008, the number of personal computers in use worldwide hit one billion, while another billion is expected to be reached by 2014. Mature markets like the United States, Western Europe and Japan accounted for 58 percent of the worldwide installed PCs. The emerging markets were expected to double their installed PCs by 2012 and to take 70 percent of the second billion PCs. About 180 million computers (16 percent of the existing installed base) were expected to be replaced and 35 million to be dumped into landfill in 2008. The whole installed base grew 12 percent annually.

Based on IDC data for Q2 2011, for the first time China surpassed US in PC shipments by 18.5 million and 17.7 million respectively. It is reflects the rising of emerging markets as well as the relative stagnation of mature regions.

In the developed world, there has been a vendor tradition to keep adding functions to maintain high prices of personal computers. However, since the introduction of the One Laptop per Child foundation and its low-cost XO-1 laptop, the computing industry started to pursue the price too. Although introduced only one year earlier, there were 14 million netbooks sold in 2008. Besides the regular computer manufacturers, companies making especially rugged versions of computers have sprung up, offering alternatives for people operating their machines in extreme weather or environments.
Deloitte consulting firm predicts that in 2011 smartphones and tablet computers as computing devices will surpass the PCs sales. Pc era is far from over as PCs will remain the main computing platform.

Average selling price

Selling prices of personal computers, unlike other consumer commodities, steadily declined due to lower costs of production and manufacture. Capabilities of the computers also increased. In 1975, an Altair kit sold for only around US $400, but required customers to solder components into circuit boards; peripherals required to interact with the system in alphanumeric form instead of blinking lights would add another $2000, and the resultant system was only of use to hobbyists.

At their introduction in 1981, the US $1,795 price of the Osborne 1 and its competitor Kaypro was considered an attractive price point; these systems had text-only displays and only floppy disks for storage. By 1982, Michael Dell observed that a personal computer system selling at retail for about $3,000 US was made of components that cost the dealer about $600; typical gross margin on a computer unit was around $1,000. The total value of personal computer purchases in the US in 1983 was about $4 billion, comparable to total sales of pet food. By late 1998, the average selling price of personal computer systems in the United States had dropped below $1000.

For Microsoft Windows systems, the average selling price (ASP) showed a decline in 2008/2009, possibly due to low-cost netbooks, drawing $569 for desktop computers and $689 for laptops at U.S. retail in August 2008. In 2009, ASP had further fallen to $533 for desktops and to $602 for notebooks by January and to $540 and $560 in February. According to research firm NPD, the average selling price of all Windows portable PCs has fallen from $659 in October 2008 to $519 in October 2009.



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